Protective effect of proton pump inhibitor against gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving oral anticoagulants: A systematic review and meta-analysis
First published: 03 August 2022 https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15478
British Journal of clinical Pharmacology
The evidence of a protective effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in oral anticoagulant (OAC) treated patients against gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is still lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the risk of GIB in patients with OAC and PPI co-therapy.
A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus databases was performed for studies reporting GIB risk in OAC and PPI co-therapy. Primary outcomes were total GIB and major GIB events. Pooled estimates of GIB risk were calculated by a random-effect meta-analysis and reported as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
A total of 10 studies and 1,970,931 patients were included. OAC and PPI co-therapy were associated with a lower odds of total and major GIB; OR (95% CI) was 0.67 (0.62-0.74) for total and 0.68 (0.63-0.75) for major GIB, respectively. No differences in the GIB of PPI co-therapy were observed between Asians and non-Asians (p-for-difference, total GIB=0.70, major GIB=0.75, respectively). For all kinds of OAC except for edoxaban, PPI cotreatment was related to a lower odds of GIB by 24–44%. The protective effect of PPI on total GIB was more significant in concurrent antiplatelets or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users and those with high bleeding risks: patients with previous GIB history, HAS-BLED ≥3, or underlying gastrointestinal diseases.
In patients who receive OAC, PPI co-therapy is associated with a lower total and major GIB irrespective of ethnic group and OAC type, except for edoxaban. PPI co-therapy can be considered particularly in high GIB risk patients.
PPI in oral anticoagulants
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