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PostPosted: 21 Nov 2015 02:05 
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Joined: 24 Mar 2013 02:28
Posts: 758
Sinus Bradycardia
Definition

Sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of < 60 bpm in adults, or below the normal range for age in children.

Normal heart rates in children

Newborn: 110 – 150 bpm
2 years: 85 – 125 bpm
4 years: 75 – 115 bpm
6 years+: 60 – 100 bpm

Causes


Non-pharmacological


Normal during sleep
Increased vagal tone (e.g. athletes)
Vagal stimulation (e.g. pain)
Inferior myocardial infarction
Sinus node disease
Hypothyroidism
Hypothermia
Anorexia nervosa
Electrolyte abnormalities – hyperkalaemia, hypermagnesaemia
Brainstem herniation (the Cushing reflex)
Myocarditis.

Pharmacological
Beta-blockers
Calcium-channel blockers (verapamil & diltiazem)
Digoxin
Central alpha-2 agonists (clonidine & dexmedetomidine)
Amiodarone
Opiates
GABA-ergic agents (barbiturates, benzodiazepines, baclofen, GHB)
Organophosphate poisoning


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